Geomorphic Processes [NCERT Notes Class 11 Geography] Exemplar Solution

# Geomorphic Processes
endogenic & exogenic forces causing physical stresses & chemical actions on earth materials & bringing about changes in configuration of surface of earth.

Geomorphic Agents -Running water, groundwater, wind, waves, glaciers etc.

Exogenic Forces
forces that derive their strength from earth’s exterior or are originated in earth’s atmosphere.

Examples– wind, waves, water etc. 

Endogenic Forces- Internal forces
strength from earth’s interior & have a crucial role in shaping earth crust.

Examples – mountain building forces, continent building forces, earthquakes, volcanism etc.

#Earth Movements
Movements in earth’s crust - by endogenic or exogenic forces.  Also termed as- Tectonic movements.

Topography- arrangement of natural & artificial physical features of an area.

Exp. The topography of the island.


Endogenic Forces – Internal forces
can be classified as slow movements (diastrophic) & sudden movements.

Examples – mountain building forces, continent building forces, earthquakes, volcanism etc. 

 Thsese are mainly land building forces.

Diastrophism : All process that move elevate or build up portions of earth's crust.


NCERT Exemplar Solution (With Extra Notes)

1). Which one of the following processes is a Gradational process?
(a) Deposition                                  (c) Volcanism

(b) Diastrophism                              (d) Erosion

Answer- Erosion

>Gradational -land is leveled off through erosion or transportation or deposition of sediments.

>Diastrophism -It refers to deformation of Earth's crust, and more especially to folding & faulting.

(2) Which one of following materials is affected by hydration process?
(a) Granite                             (c) Quartz
(b) Clay                                  (d) Salts
Answer- Salts

>Granite : light-colored igneous rock (can be white, pink, or gray), grains large enough to be visible with unaided eye.

>Quartz is mineral composed of silicon & oxygen atoms. Chemical Formula SiO₂ 

(3) Debris avalanche can be included in the category of:
(a) Landslides                             (c) Rapid flow mass movements

(b) Slow flow mass movements (d) Subsidence

Answer- Rapid flow mass movements

>Debris avalanche : sudden catastrophic collapse (or landslide) from an unstable side of a volcano.

>Subsidence : either sudden sinking or gradual downward settling of ground's surface with little or no horizontal motion.

Difficult Words:
debris- scattered pieces of rubbish or remains.


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