Environment (Prelims 2019) Subject Test 1

Environment and UPPCS Special

Environment Conservation Act

1. Environmental Protection Act was passed in India in [1986]. It is applicable all over India.

2. [Eco-Mark certification] is given to Indian products which are environment friendly. This certification is given by Bureau of Indian Standards.

3. Green Army for Environment protection?
With the aim of environmental protection [Australia] had launched mission ‘Green Army’ appointing 15000 youths aging 17-24 year.

4. [Singapore] has announced the imposition of carbon tax, to curb the emission of greenhouse gases, from 2019.

5.India's first forest policy was started in 1894 and Independent India's first forest policy in [1952]

6. [Bhutan] is a naturally green country. [More than 30%] of the land of Bhutan belongs to the national parks.

7. Kanjali lake ramsar wetland area is situated in [Punjab].

8. [Ecological footprint]=  minimum land needed for making a human life sustainable.

The essential quantity of ecological components, which is necessary for a man to run his lifestyle smoothly, is called ecological designation.

9. [Water vapor] has largest contribution to greenhouse effect (around 36-72%) + carbon dioxide 9-26% methane 4-9%, Ozone contributes 3-7%.

**10. Carbon tax= This is an example of pollution tax. 

This tax was imposed by [New Zealand] for the first time in the year 2005.

9. According to the National Forest Policy, forests are classified as follows -

1. Protected Forests

2. National Forest

3. Village Forest

4. tree land

Hence, [National Park] is not a cadre of forest.

**10. GOSAT Ibuki means–
The first Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite manufactured by Japan

**11. On 1 May 2019, the UK Parliament declared environment and [climate emergency]. [Britain] became the first country to make such a declaration.

12. The hunting of organisms listed in [Schedule-V] of Wildlife Conservation Act, 1972 is permitted. Examples - monkey, wild boar etc.

13. Archaeological site is the subject of concurrent list.

Mineral Resource= Union List


Disaster Management

Conservation of biological diversity,+ prevention and control of pollution,+ reduction of poverty = are all necessary for sustainable development.

A hydrosphere is total amount of water on a planet. 
The hydrosphere includes water that is on the surface of the planet, underground, and in the air. A planet's hydrosphere can be liquid, vapor, or ice.

Weathering is the process of breaking of rocks, under which rocks are disintegrated, dissociated and become scattered and remain disintegrate in their place.

[Masanobu Fukuka], the inventor of [natural agriculture], was a Japanese farmer and philosopher.

Deforestation is the root cause of ecological imbalance in India.

Human in food-chain is–Primary and secondary consumer

In which ecosystem the [Pyramid of biomass] gets inverted?

 In aquatic ecology, the pyramid of biomass is inverted.

The water cycle is included under the [gaseous cycle] by Odum.

Odum has included water cycle in–[Gaseous cycle]

The natural sources of methane emission include [wetlands, seas and hydrates].

[Lead] is found in the cosmetic lipsticks used by women.

The natural vegetation type in India varies with the [amount of rainfall, soil type and height].

Not varies with Annual mean temperature

Terrace cultivation is done–[on the slope of hills]

i.e. Stair farming is done on the slopes of the mountains.

Selvas – Bryophyta

Savannah – Grass and Trees

Tundra – Moss and Lichen

Monsoon Country – epiphyte

The process of [trans-esterification] is adopted in the production of biodiesel.

Ashtamudi/Ashtamudi – In Kerala

Bhoj Sagar – in Madhya Pradesh

Kolleru Lake – is in Andhra Pradesh

Vembanad = Kerala.

The world's first protected area - [Yellow Stone Park] is located in USA

Diatom – Autotrophic

Cretaceous – Herbivorous Consumer

Herring – Carnivorous Consumer

correct food chain= Diatom – Crustacean – Herring

[Sea and forest] are kept under carbon sink.

Natural absorbers, which absorb carbon dioxide.

The state with the most area under wetland is [Gujarat], while Andhra Pradesh held the second place.

Sea Buckthorn cultivation
It helps in the control of [soil erosion] and prevents [desertification]. It has [nutritional value]. It is well adapted to survive in high altitude cold regions.

Climate change has the potential to affect [agriculture]. Increasing temperature will affect soil moisture and functionality.

Ozone layer is located at an altitude of about 10 to 50 km above earth, mainly in the [lower part of stratosphere] subsurface.

Gases filled as coolant in refrigerators are commonly marketed under the brand name [Mephron]. These are usually halonic hydrocarbons.

The percentage of dense forest cover in the total geographical area of India is [12.20%]. 

According to the India Forest Status Report 2017, the dense forests are divided into very dense forests and medium dense forests.

[Arunachal Pradesh] is forested in 80.30% area.

mangroves area reserve is situated in [Goa]

[Chorao Island of Goa] is fully protected Kutch vegetation area.

Chorao Island in Mandovi river is one of the best mangrove forest

Acid rain is a rainfall which pH value is [less than 5.6], It is formed when oxides of sulfur and nitrogen react with moisture in the atmosphere.

Sasthamkotta site= in Kerala, 

Deepor Bill= in Assam 

Rudra Sagar= in Tripura, 

all is Ramsar wetlands.

“The world has enough for everyone’s need, but not everyone’s greed”–

This is the statement of [Mahatma Gandhi] expressing concern about nature.

[Mansukhbhai Prajapati] is the founder of Mitti Cool Fridge.

World Wetland Day is observed every year on [February 2].

According to the ISFR-2017 report, 
Mangrove cover in India is [3.3 percent] of total mangrove vegetation in world.

**Scientists recently established world’s highest automated weather station on [Mount Everest].

[Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sodium] are included in high nutrition level elements.

Most deserts are found in latitudes 15° to 35° on [western coasts of continents] near tropical Cancer and Capricorn line in Northern and Southern hemisphere.

Euro Norms are designed to control [harmful gases emitting from vehicles].

Dr. [Ramdev Mishra] is known as father of ecology in India.

The term ecology system was first used by [A.G. Tensley]. 

It is the functional unit of ecological system which involves complex actions occurring between its biotic and biotic components.

Highest Primary productivity is found in [equatorial forest biome]. It has a plurality of insects, reptiles and amphibian species than any other biome.

Anshupa Lake is situated in [Odisha]
 state's largest freshwater lake.

Estuarine ecosystem?
Study of various organisms in the river mouth region

40 percent of vegetation found in India is foreign (non-endemic). These flora brought from outside are related to Tibet and China. These are called [boreal].

‘Liana vine' is found in [tropical evergreen forest], which clings to the trunk of the tree and wraps the whole upper part of the tree.

The [terrestrial eco-system] includes grass land. Such as Savannah, Pampas, Lanoj etc.

Mushroom cultivation is useful in [bio gas production,+ recycling of agricultural waste,+ prevention of cancer].

In the process of eutrophication the [demand for dissolved oxygen in water increases], while the quantity of dissolved oxygen in water decreases.


Bio Diversity

National Biodiversity Authority was established in [Chennai] in 2003.

Elephant project was started in [1992] to protect elephants in India.

World Wildlife Day is observed on [October 1]. 

Coral is a type of [calcareous rock]. It is made from the bones of a small sea creature called pollip.

[Utricularia] is known as aquatic and insectivorous plants.

or, marine and insectivorous Plant

The main reason for the destruction of biodiversity= degradation of natural habitats, over exploitation of natural resources, invasion of foreign species, destruction of forests.

Biodiversity Day is observed on [May 22]

[International Union for Conservation of Natural Resources] (IUCN) >> prepares a list of threatened plants and animals on the verge of extinction in the Red Data Books.

The highest biodiversity is found in [tropical rain forests].

Kebul Lamjao National Park of Manipur (Only floating park of world), which is famous for [Sangai or dancer deer].

World's first Save Tiger Movement was organized in [St. Petersburg, Russia]. 
Representatives of 13 countries agreed that the number of tigers should be doubled by the year 2022 (Under the Global Tiger Recovery Program).

Hangul Project was started in [1970]. 

'Hangul' (Kashmiri stag) is the only surviving species of the red deer family in Kashmir.

Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary is bordering with Kerala and Karnataka, it is located in the state of [Tamil Nadu].

Term biodiversity was first used by American botanist [Walter G. Rosen].

Ganga dolphin= scientific name is [Platnista gangetica]. It is also called the [tiger of the Ganga].

Diclofenac sodium is responsible for the decline of [vultures]. 

Diclofenac Sodium is a simple pain reliever, which is used by farmers as a pain reliever and for treatment of fever in animals.

Dugong is a large marine [mammal], which is on the verge of extinction.

Indian Wild Ass has natural habitat in the Kutch run. He has no predator in this area. 

But its existence is in danger because its [habitat area is becoming limited]. or due to [Confining of habitat]

[Vandana Siva] authored book called “Tomorrow’s Biodiversity”.

Periyar National Park provides special protection to [tigers and elephants].

Most species of insects are found in the [desert].

objective of ‘MIKE’= [Protection of Elephant]

This program was brought in Cites Conference 2003, for Conservation of Elephants.

The biodiversity of community of a certain area or ecosystem is called [alpha diversity].

# When genetic diversity is low, [similarity in castes] will be less.

Net genetic diversity in a species or its totality is called [gene pool].

The coral is mainly found in the [tropical ocean] between [30° north to 30° south].

Monkey pox spreads from animals to humans. It is a [viral disease].

Ebola virus was discovered in [1976]. The name Ebola originates from the Ebola River. This river flows in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Number pyramid is both straight and upside down.

i.e. both [Erect and Inverted]

Three Types of Ecological Pyramids: Number, Biomass, & Energy

Which organism doesn’t show Aestivation= [Bat]

Aestivation is a state of animal dormancy.
Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and physical activity are temporarily stopped. 

Which animal does Aestivation= Reptiles and amphibians
>Non-mammalian animals that aestivate include [North American desert tortoises, crocodiles, and salamanders.]

>Although relatively uncommon, a small number of mammals aestivate.

[Keystone species] shows its influence on community characteristics despite the abundance & scarcity of biomass in a community.

The most abundance of BOD is found between [Kanpur – Prayagraj] in the Ganga River.

Satkosia George Wildlife Sanctuary= in [Odisha]. 

 All the given wildlife sanctuaries are Gharial and crocodile protected areas.

Guindy National Park =Tamil Nadu

Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary=  Rajasthan

Satkosia George Wildlife Sanctuary=  Odisha

International Tiger Day is celebrated on July 29.

The living organisms in the dark area are called [Nekton] or necton

Those living at the bottom of the ocean are called [Benthos]

Region of India are included in the 17 megadiversity regions of the world

1. Indo-Burma Region

2. Eastern Himalayan Region

3. Western Ghat

4. Sunda land and Nicobar Region

India holds 16.86% space in hot spot biodiversity.

[Blue book] is prepared by UNEP. This is a list of [endangered species] of the world, 
UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme

Red Data Book is prepared by IUCN= Critically Endangered of species of plants and animals.

IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature


Environmental Institution and Reports

Solar radiation has the most important role in the [water cycle].

Green Peace International is headquartered in [Amsterdam]. 
It is a non-governmental environmental organization having offices in more than 40 countries.

Work is done by UN-REDD organisation= [Economic assessment of the amount of Carbon conserved in forest.]

UN-REDD organization has been started since 2008. The purpose of which is to evaluate economically the [amount of carbon stored in the forests].

The most suitable tree to prevent dust pollution is that of [Sita Ashoka].

[Ozone, Chlorine dioxide, Chloramine] are all used to make water free of bacteria.

Vienna Convention deals with= ozone conservation

Montreal Convention prohibits =emission of chemicals that damage the ozone layer.

Bonn Conference is related to =weather change.

[P. Hegde] is considered father of Appiko movement.

[Dioxin and Fluron] are dangerous pollutant emitted [during] burning of waste at high temperature (Incinerator).

Fly ash also comes out after combustion. 

Bhopal-1984 and [Ukraine-1988] are known as MIC and [Chernobyl Tragedy] respectively.

Green house effect was discovered in 1824 by [Joseph Fourier].

G-8 MUSCOCA initiative is related to [Reducing green house gases].

Carbon trading, Asia’s first cap and trade programme, was introduced in [Tokyo] City, Japan.

[China] is world’s largest carbon emitting country, while Bhutan is considered the world's top carbon negative country.

First Global Climate Conference – 1979

First Earth Summit – Agenda 21

Earth Summit Plus 5 – 1997

Carbon trading – [Kyoto Protocol]

A carbon credit system was implemented to reduce carbon emissions in the environment under the Kyoto Protocol.

According to the study done by the Global Carbon Project, the order of four major carbon emitting countries of the world - [China, America, European Union, India].

The Global Hunger Index is released by [Wealth Hunger Life & Concern World Wide].

There are 6 categories in National Air Quality Index. 
In this, eight polluting elements [PM-10, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, ammonia, SO2, CO, lead] will be considered.

According to the ISFR-2017 report, 
mangrove cover in India is [3.3 percent] of the total mangrove vegetation in the world.

But, ISFR-2019 report= Mangrove cover in country increased by 54 sq km (1.10%) as compared to previous assessment.

India State of Forest Report [ISFR - 2019 report]= A biennial publication of Forest Survey

Total Forest and Tree Cover rises to [24.56 %]

India’s forest cover is rising but Forests in [northeast region] witnesses a decline.

Except Assam and Tripura, all the States in the region show decrease in forest cover.

Forests in hills are increasing but decreasing in [tribal districts]. 

Increase in forest cover= [Karnataka] > Andhra Pradesh> Kerala

Forest Cover (Area-wise) : Madhya Pradesh> Arunachal Pradesh

Forest Cover (Percentage): Mizoram (85.41%)> Arunachal Pradesh (79.63%)> Meghalaya (76.33%)

Gujarat has the largest area of wetlands within RFA in the country followed by West Bengal.

Global 500 Award is given by UNEP in field of [environmental protection and improvement].

21 March – World Forest Day

22 April – World Earth Day

16 September – Ozone Day

COP-14 (2019) – UN Convention to prevent desertification was held in [Greater Noida].

Kigali Agreement is an amendment in [Montreal Agreement] which was done in Rwanda. 

Agreement aims to phase down HFCs by reducing its manufacture and consumption.

World Environment Day=  June 5.

Indian Air Force Day= October 8

Correct sequence of international conference related to the protection of environment is–
Stockholm Conference – Montreal Protocol – Helsinki Conference

Stockholm Conference= 1972
Montreal Protocol= 1987
Helsinki Conference= 1989, Finland. 


Environment (General)

The writer of ‘Green Development’ is– [W.M. Adams]

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar constellation is located in [Rampur].

The first Biotechnology Park in Uttar Pradesh was established in [Lucknow].

Old name of Rajaji National Park was [Motichoor Wildlife Vihar], which is located in present day Uttarakhand.

[Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary] was established firstly in Uttar Pradesh, which is located in Unnao.

District of Uttar Pradesh with most forest cover= [Sonbhadra]

Operation Green Scheme for Plantation in Uttar Pradesh was launched in [2001].

Social Forestry Scheme in Uttar Pradesh was started in [1976], which was related to plantation through social efforts.

8 cities have been included under Yamuna Action Plan.>> [Saharanpur, Agra, Mathura, Etawah] are among them.

Ban Sagar Dam in Uttar Pradesh is located on [Son River].

Institute of Alternative Energy Development= established in [1983] for development of alternative energy in Uttar Pradesh.

Uttar Pradesh Water Pollution Prevention and Control Board= formed in Uttar Pradesh in [1975].

Lakes of Uttar Pradesh
Raigadh Lake - Gorakhpur

Mansiganga - Mathura 

Laxmital - Jhansi

Madan Sagar - Mahoba 

These lakes have been included under lake pollution control program.

Babbar Lion Breeding Center and [Lion Safari Park] are located in [Etawah[ district of Uttar Pradesh.

Fulhar Lake, is located in [Pilibhit] district of Uttar Pradesh.

Also known as= Pagauti Fulhar Tal or Gomad Tal.

Dudhwa National Park is located in [Lakhimpur Kheri] district of Uttar Pradesh. >> The park is a also part of Project Tiger.

Joint forest management in Uttar Pradesh started in [1992].

Environment (Prelims 2019) Subject Test 1 Environment (Prelims 2019) Subject Test 1 Reviewed by Admin on March 30, 2020 Rating: 5

No comments:

Recent Post

Powered by Blogger.