Science & Technology (Prelims 2019) Subject Test

Physics


Electric Cell Converts= chemical energy into [electrical energy]. 

Dynamo converts= mechanical energy into electrical energy.




Altimeter – Measurement of height

Radiator – Used in cooling the engines of cars

Thermostat [controls the temperature].






*Torque is a [vector quantity], it’s unit is Newton Meter.







C.G.S. unit of force is [dyne]. 






Ultrasonic waves are used= [to measure the depth of the ocean,+ to detect tumors,+ to clean the parts of aircraft and clocks]. 






Mercury freezes at [ -39° C].








A cylindrical lens is used for the astigmatism, while a concave lens is used for myopia










[Copper] metal is used in the construction of lightning conductors.




 theory of uncertainty was presented by [Heisenberg] 







The signal of television cannot reach after a certain distance because–The [surface of the Earth is curved].

As the earth’s surface is curved, television's signals cannot reach after a certain distance= because signals will not collide with the earth’s surface and move forward.










The sun and moon look large sphere near to the horizon due to–[Refraction] of light.








Concentration in the eye is caused by a [change in the convexity of lens].





A radar which detects the presence of enemy aircraft uses–[Radio waves]
Radar= range, height, direction and speed of both stationary and moving objects can be detected with help of electromagnetic waves, especially [radio waves].







CT scan or [computed tomography] is a special type of [X-ray] examination










Most of the remote control units of TV use [infrared radiation] but in some use [radio waves].






Full form of C.F.L.- Compact Fluorescent Lamp.









Fast breeder reactor is being operated in Kalpakkam since 1985. 
In this reactor, plutonium & uranium mixed carbide fuels are used and [Liquid Sodium] is used as a coolant.






Cryogenic temperature means such a temperature which is [less than – 150°C]

study of the behavior of elements at this temperature is called cryogenics.








Black hole is a very dense body where the gravitational field is so strong that [It absorbes all the rays passing through it].







The most abundantly found element in earth crust= [Oxygen]

Oxygen 46.8%, silicon 27.72%, Aluminum - 8.1%







On lighting a candle in space flame is not formed. because= Flame exists due to the gravitation.




The velocity of extremely minute particles is determined through [Quantum Mechanics].

>branch of science in which extremely minute particles are studied.







Twinkling of stars at night= [Due to refraction of light]







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Biology

Carbonic compound is found abundantly in the nature [Cellulose]

The most commonly found organic compound in nature is cellulose.







For artificial insemination, sperm is preserved in [liquid nitrogen].








Disease ‘[hypoglycemia]’ is caused by the excess secration of insulin. 

This reduces fertility and vision knowledge and makes the patient feel more tired. 
Diabetes disease occurs due to insulin deficiency and crohn’s disease due to deficiency of sodium and potassium.






Cobalt is a mineral salt which is an important component of [vitamin B12]

Vitamin B12 is necessary for growth and lack of it causes disturbances in the function of nervous system.







The work of [cerebrum] is controlling memory, thinking, intelligence and will power etc.








[Gregor Johann Mendel] propounded the ”Purity of Gametes”

Mendels Law of segregation also called Law of purity of gametes= gametes maintain their purity during reproduction.







Hydrophobia disease is a [viral disease], which spreads in humans from the saliva of infected animals.







[Artificial heart] is called Jarvik-7.





Chemical name of vitamin B1 is= thiamine. 
[Hippocrates] is considered the father of medicine. 

[Pincus] invented the contraceptive pill.









Bronchitis is a type of disease, which affects the [lungs] in the body.







Eendemic= When a disease is permanently present in a particular area or population.  

Epidemic= When an infectious disease [spreads rapidly] in a large number of people in a certain population.

*Pandemic= Expansion of epidemic situation in whole world.







Mums or mumps = viral disease>> parotid gland becomes painfully large.

Herpes= viral disease.







In medical terms, Golden Hour is related to [heart attack].








Keeping fast for a long time has the greatest effect on the [kidneys] of the body.








Oncogene is an abnormal gene responsible for [cancer].



Anosmia indicates a [lack of olfactory sensation]. Smelling power is destroyed.







Khaira – Deficiency of Zinc

Anemia – Deficiency of Iron










Diabetes= caused by hormonal disturbances. 

Hemophilia= genetic disease.








Plague- spread by [mice]. 

[Tapeworm] - spread by eating half cooked pig meat

polio spread by- poliomyelitis virus.







Symptoms of AIDS include =
Swollen lymphs (Swollen veins) + sweating in night+ Memory loss + weight loss.







Interferon is used in treatment of [kidney and blood cancer]. It is a type of protein.





Emphysema= chronic obstructive [pulmonary] disease in which human lungs are affected.

caused due to environmental pollution>> organ affected by it is–[pulmonary]







Azolla is an [aquatic fern] which is a type of bio fertilizer that performs nitrogen fixation. 

Rhizobium and azotobacter are also a biofertilizer.







Genital gland – progesterone

Pituitary gland – growth harmone

Adrenal – cortisole







[Amino acid] is not stored in the human body.
Amino acids are made up of small units. 








Amoeba (A protozoa) is a [unicellular organism] that usually produces by fission method. 

All unicellular organisms reproduce by [asexual methods].








Silver Pisces= an insect. 

Cray fish fall under =Molesca category. 

Jelly fish is not a vertebrate animal & does not fall into category of fish. 

*[Cat fish] are real fish. 

There are [2 chambers] in the aquatic creature.







Anthrax is a serious infectious disease.>> caused by Bacillus anthrax, [Bacteria]. 

Anthrax is found naturally in soil and usually affects domestic and wild animals. Anthrax occurs in hoofed animals such as sheep, goat etc.






Antigen is a substance that stimulates [formation of antibody] and promotes immune system.






[Red light] has maximum photosynthesis. The second maximum is found in blue light. 

However, chlorophyll absorbs [blue light] more than red light but red light is mainly used in photosynthesis.










Lycopene found in tomatoes. 

[Lama and camel] have nucleus found in red blood cells.>> Not found in the rest of the organisms. (As red blood cells contain no nucleus)


Longest cell in human body= Nerve cell (Neuron)
Smallest= RBCs (but if sperm cells are given as option then go with it).



Sometime confusion, 
Largest cell in human body is female egg >> smallest is male sperm.
Egg(Ovum) is not largest cell of human body, it is the largest cell of female body.



Smallest known cell= Mycoplasma (a genus of bacteria).
Largest cells= egg cell of ostrich









Blood is preserved at [4°C]. 
100 ml of hemoglobin contains 15% oxygen in males and 13% oxygen in females. The study of the blood is called [hematology].







Leucopenia means [Reduction of WBC below normal]. 

Nukemia= More than normal presence of WBC.

Anemia= less than normal presence of RBC.






Vitamins are complex [organic compounds]. Which control actions of catalysts in metabolic reactions of the body. 









Retinol – Xerophthalmia

Tocopherol – Infertility 

Niacin – Pellagra


Pyridoxine= a mental disorder caused by deficiency of B6. 
Chemical name of B6 is= [pyridoxine].


Vitamin B12= cobalamins; cyanocobalamin


Vitamin B3 includes three forms:- nicotinamide (niacinamide)+ niacin (nicotinic acid),+ nicotinamide riboside.








vitamin B, C are soluble in water.







The main fuel for long-duration exercise is [carbohydrates], ie fructose, starch, glucose etc. 

Glucose can be used immediately as fuel, or can be sent to the liver and muscles and stored as glycogen. 
During exercise, muscle glycogen is converted back into glucose, which only the muscle fibers can use as fuel.










Alfa Kiratin is a protein found in [skin]. Alpha Kiratins are found in horns, nails, hooves, hair etc. 








Linseed is known as a rich source of [Omega-3 fatty acids]

Teesi (Flax), also known as common flax or linseed,






Insulin secreted by [beta cells], the endocrine part of [langerhans islets].

plant hormone
Cytokinin
Ethylene
Gibberellin






[Lungs] controls the temperature of the body.






By using [black gold], sea water can be converted into drinking water. 






Bright’s disease (also called uremia) affects the [kidney]

A condition involving abnormally high levels of waste products in the blood.







Mission Indradhanush Campaign in India is related to–[Vaccination of children]






Creature that separates its tail – lizard

Most intelligent animal – Chimpanzee 




Bamboo is a type of–[Grass]





In Bile juice, liver salts like [sodium carbonate] and cholesterol are present.





The sensitive organ related to body balancing is situated at– [Inner ear]








[Arteries]= oxygenated blood transmitted from heart to various parts of body. 






Addison’s disease is serious adrenal gland disorder.>>  Amount of [water & sodium] in urine increases. 







Tetanus, also known as lockjaw >>Caused by a bacteria [Clostridium tetanus].>>Affects nervous system,






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Chemistry



Producer gas is a mixture of nitrogen and carbon monoxide gases.





Methyl mercaptane, a [compound of sulfur], is used for odor in the LPG.




[Iodine] does not react with oxygen.




[Sulfur] is added to rubber to make it strong and bouncy.





[Sulfuric acid] is used in lead accumulator batteries.



Milk is an example of–[Emulsion]

Emulsions are a type of colloid.>>An emulsion is a suspension of two liquids that usually do not mix together.  e.g.– milk, face cream, etc







[Vegetable Oil] is used in making soap.

Saponification: When treating any oil or fat with sodium hydroxide solution= [sodium salts and glycerol].

Saponification =triglycerides are reacted with sodium or potassium hydroxide (lye) =to produce glycerol & a fatty acid salt called "soap".










[Silver coating] is applied on walls of Thermos flask to keep drinking water at same temperature for some time.





Cyclotron is used to accelerate [Proton]




Chromatography= technique of separating a [mixture of colored chemicals].







Lithium is the lightest
Osmium is a natural metal with the highest density. (heaviest metal)






Ruby and Sapphire chemically known as [Aluminium Oxide]

Manikya and Neelam are jewel forms of Corundum. Corundum is naturally found in crystal form of {aluminum oxide}.









 thorium is obtained from monozite sand. 










German silver or nickel silver= Copper (50%),+ zinc (35%),+ nickel (15%).






[Salt, sugar, diamond, quartz, grafite], are in the category of crystal.






Structure of Sulphur Hexafluoride= [Octagonal]







Blue Vitriol – Copper Sulphate

Epsom Salt – Magnesium Sulfate

Caustic soda - sodium hydroxide





[Polyamide] is used for manufacturing of Bullet proof substances.








[Oil, fat, ghee, wax] are soluble in carbon tetrachloride

varnish, camphor, leather are soluble in alcohol.







Radiation Pyrometer works on [Stephens Principle]







Shale gases
Mainly made up of [methane]. 
Obtained through [Hydraulic fracturing].








Hydrogen Bomb= [Fusion of deuterium and tritium.]





[Ethyl acetate] is used to make artificial aromatic substances.







[Radon] is not found in atmosphere>> radioactive element.>> treatment of cancer.





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Technology


The telephone system uses {circuit switching} to transmit voice messages, while the Internet is based on [packet switching].




[Vijay Bhatkar] is known as father of Indian supercomputer.





Embedded computer could be fitted in a digital watch.




India’s first remote sensing satellite IRS-1A launched from [Baikonur] Space centre in 1988.





gas engine was discovered by [Daimler].








Cytotron is a device from which [artificial weather] can be generated.




Laser beam is used in sensitive treatment like - implantation of cornea. i.e. [Treatment of eyes]






Li-Fi is the advanced technology of [wireless communication], which is based on the exchange of data through [visible light]. Li-Fi technology does not work in the darkness. 







Characteristic of quantum computer.
Atoms are used in quantum computer for calculation.

Quantum computer uses very less storage than digital computer.






Scram jet
*No oxidizer is required in the scram jet engine.

*Scram jet engine could be used in the missiles of ICBM technology.

It uses oxygen of the atmosphere. Due to which the payload with high load can be carried. 

A scramjet (supersonic-combustion ramjet) is a ramjet engine in which the airflow through the engine remains supersonic, or greater than the speed of sound.









Under ‘Mission Shakti’ conducted by [DRDO], the satellite of [low earth orbit] was targeted.

(An anti-satellite missile test, from Abdul Kalam Island launch complex)






Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) was launched by PSLV-C25.

Chandrayaan II has been launched by GSLV-Mark III.










Hydrophonics= crops are produced in controlled environment in water [without soil].







Digital signature is a online medium of document certification

In India, Information Technology Act, 2000 provided it the legal status.








ITER is related to [nuclear fusion] and under ITER project a device, namely Tokomac, is being built at Kadrash in southern France.




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Miscellaneous


Large Hadron Collider : God Particle




National Physical Laboratory - in New Delhi

National Chemical Laboratory - in Pune 

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research - in Mumbai









**On 20 May 2019, new definitions of 4 measuring units have come into force. These are: [Kilogram, Ampere, Kelvin, Mole]






World Animal Day – 3 October

World Food Day – 16 October 

World Leprosy Prevention Day- January 31,









Development and Education Communication Unit – Ahmedabad

National Inertia System Unit – Thiruvananthapuram

National Remote Sensing Agency – Hyderabad

ISRO Distance Trailing and Direction – Bengaluru








**Campaign ‘Save Green Stay Clean’ was started by [West Bengal]











**Extinction of [Great Indian Bustard+ Lesser Florican] >>>SC forms Panel to frame Emergency Plan to prevent.


Godavan (Great Indian Bustard) and Kharmor (Lesser florican)








**India's First Dinosaur Museum Park Inaugurated In [Gujarat]









ISRO Satellite Center-  Bangalore 

Vikram Sara Bhai Space Center - Thiruvananthapuram  

SHAR Center - Sriharikota 

Space Applications Center - Ahmedabad. 






*Queen of Cereals– [Maize]

king of grains - rice 

queen of grains - Mecca. 

king of the fruits - mango 

queen of the fruits - lychee.

king of flowers - Rose







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UP Special Science



[Gene therapy] - treatment of blood diseases

[Cryonics] - Freezing live cells to revive again.

Cryonics is the practice of preserving human bodies in extremely cold temperatures with the hope of reviving them sometime in the future.


Cryogenics is production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.








In [1999] Taj Trapezium was launched by Uttar Pradesh govt to protect Taj Mahal from pollution.

Taj Troposium Environmental Protection Fund.



[Lucknow] is being developed as science city in Uttar Pradesh. 





Jawahar Tara Mandal in Uttar Pradesh is located in [Prayagraj].






Science & Technology (Prelims 2019) Subject Test Science & Technology (Prelims 2019) Subject Test Reviewed by Admin on March 31, 2020 Rating: 5

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