History (Prelims 2019) Subject Test

Ancient History


(Major Place - River)

 A. Alamgirpur-   Hindon

 B. Banamali-  Rangoi

 C. Kot diji-    Indus

https://gk.rijadeja.com/2017/11/hindi-list-of-sindhu-culture-place-river-archaeologist.html






The information about first Huna invasion of India is received from– [Bitari inscription]

It is in Ghazipur, Uttar Pradesh. Skandagupta is the ruler associated with this piller inscription.










The names of two Jain Tirthankaras [Rishabhdev + Arishtanemi] are mentioned in the Rigveda.

Arishtanemi, (also called Neminatha), was 22nd Tirthankara

Rishabhanatha- first Tirthankara >> Symbol- Bull
Successor- Ajitanatha






First clear description of Lingam worship is found in [Matasya Purana]>> Oldest Purana.>> History of Satavahana dynasty.









Jataka tales shows that the Bodhisatva can reincarnate in form of [Human and Animal].








‘Bharatavarsha’ is first time mentioned in [Hathigumpha inscription]

Three miles from Bhubaneswar in {Odisha}, there is a hill named Udayagiri, which has an inscription found in a cave







The founder of the Ajivak sect was [Makkhali Gosala] . He [did not believe in power of God] like Mahavira. Also, He considered creature and matter as separate elements.








After the death of Mahatma Buddha, his teachings were compiled and divided into three Pitakas 1. Vinaya Pitaka 2. Sutta Pitaka 3. Abhidhamma Pitaka. 

A collection of philosophical theories are found in [Abhidhamma Pitaka].









Third Buddhist council was presided by {Moggliputta Tissa}. 

After this council, monks were sent to different countries for promotion of Buddhism, whose names are available in [Mahavansha].






Kushinagara was the capital of [Malla republic]

Mahaparinirmana of Mahatma Buddha occured in [Kushinagara].









Chaitya is place of [worship].
Vihara is the [of Buddhist] monks.










Information about ancient Indian history is mainly obtained from four sources –

1. Scripture

2. Historical treatise (written work)

3. Details about foreigners

4. Archaeological evidence








The main crops in the Indus civilization were - [wheat and barley]










Ajitanatha (अजितनाथ)= second tirthankara>> Symbol: Elephant.








(Jain Trithankars & Symbol)
A. Rishabhadeva   -Bull
 B. Ajitnath   -Elephant
 C. Parshwanath -snake
 D. Mahavir -Lion








Book ‘The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea’ –

It describes the close trade relations between India and Rome. The author has mentioned [Arikamedu ]as pedukaye and Korke as Kalchi.


Which port was known as ‘Poduke’ to the writer of ‘The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea’ –
[Arikamedu]






‘Tolkappiyam’ scripture is related to–[Grammer and poetry]

A treatise of {Tamil grammar}. The credit of creation is attributed to Tolkapiyam, a disciple of Sage Agastya. Tolakkappiyam is the only residual in the texts compiled by the {Second Sangam}.










Conversation between Nachiketa and Yama= [Katha Upanishad]









(King)-                (State)
A. Pradyota-     Avanti 

B. Ajatsatru-    Magadha

C. Pasenadi-   Kosala

D. Udayana-   Vatsa 








Kailash temple at Ellora was built by [Krishna I].








Ajatashatru, ruler of Magadha, was sitting on throne after killing his father. That is why, known as [ Kunik (Pitruhanta) ].







[Vijayalaya], founder of the Chola dynasty, assumed the title of ‘Narakesari’.







The [land gifted to Brahmans] was called Brahmadeya in the Chola period.










‘Battle of Takkolam’ of south India was fought between [Chola and Rashtrakuts]
Rashtrakuta king Krishna III defeated Chola army in {battle of Takkolam}.








Chandbardai was the poet laureate of [Prithviraj III]. He wrote Prithviraj Raso.








 Most powerful ruler of Paramar dynasty was [Raja Bhoj].

Raja Bhoj wrote many scripture on medicine, mathematics and grammer.










Earliest evidence of paddy cultivation in India obtained from village of [Lahuradeva]








About 600 ancient caves found on hill of [Bhimbetka], Madhya Pradesh. >>Remains of ancient painting found in about 275 caves.






[Dharmapala] was an ardent Buddhist ruler of Pala dynasty. >>established universities, {Vikramashila} & Sompuri.






A total of [24 ports] from Indus to Kanyakumari are mentioned in book 'Periplus of the Erythraean Sea'.






A great number of Gupta period coins were found in [Vayana]
Samudragupta depicted him as playing a ‘veena’.









Gupta period trade chief was known [Sarthvah]






Ancient Tamil poems are known as [Sangam literature]. It throws good light on the erstwhile Tamil society administration and economy.









Annagar was established in [ Sohgaura (U.P) and Mahasthana (West Bengal) ] by Emperor Ashoka to deal with situation of famine.






In [Purana], Satavahanas addressed as Andhrabhartya. >>maternal ruling state>> founded by Simuk.




'Amaju’ mean in Vedic era [Lifelong unmarried woman]






First inscription of the Gupta rulers, in which earliest description of Gupta era is found?
[Mathura Pillar Inscription]






The ancient name of [Ayodhya] is Saket.
Kannauj was known as Maha Nagar.







The religion of the earlier Vedic Aryans was mainly- [Nature worship and Yagya]

The word ‘Arya’ is mentioned 33 times in the Rigtveda. They were originally polytheists. 






According to Jain philosophy, creation and upbringing -[is derived from universal legislation].

Jain philosophy believes that the whole world is made up of two continual and independent elements called {jiva and ajiva}. Jeeva is conscious while Ajiva is the root.





Which Chola kings conquered Ceylon= [Rajaraja I]

In 993 AD, {Raja Raja Chola} conquered Anuradhapura Kingdom, in north Sri Lanka

The whole of island was subsequently conquered during reign of {Rajendra Chola}.










Famous pillar named 'Queen's inscription' located in [Allahabad (Prayag)]

Ashoka’s queen Karuvaki >> Prayag Pillar>> also known as ‘Queen's inscription’.






8 out of 16 Mahajanapadas were located in the present Uttar Pradesh state- Kuru, Panchal, Kashi, [Koushal], Shursen, Chedi, Vatsa and Malla.







Evidence of copper-megalithic culture in Uttar Pradesh obtained from [Meerut and Saharanpur].







The legend of Udayan-Vasavadatta is related to [Kaushambi]. 






Aryabhatta Constellation is located in [Rampur] district of Uttar Pradesh.







‘Buddhist Circuit’ in Uttar Pradesh includes [Kapilavastu, Kushinagar, Shravasti, Sankisa, Sarnath, Kaushambi].




_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Modern History


The correct order of entry of European powers to trade in India is-

1. Portuguese
2. Dutch
3. English
4. French







{Muslim League} celebrated Direct Action Day on 16 August 1946 in [Calcutta].







List-I (Institutions)-  List-II (Founder)

 A. Aatmiya Sabha -  Raja Rammohan Rai

*B. Tatwa Bodhini Sabha -  Devendranath Thakur

 *C. British Sarvajanik Sabha -  Dadabhai Naoroji

 *D. Scientific Society -  Sir Sayed Ahmad Khan









In 1905 AD, Main supporters of ‘Swadeshi’ movement were= Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Vipin Chandra Pal. 

[Aurobindo Ghosh], Dadabhai Naoroji, Subhash Chandra Bose did not support ‘Swadeshi’ movement.







Rabindranath Tagore called [Subhash Chandra Bose] a {‘Desh Nayak’} and Mahatma Gandhi called him ‘Prince of Patriots’.









The correct order is as follows-

Establishment of forward block (1939)
August proposal (August 8, 1940)

Cripps Mission (March 1942)
Quit India Movement (9 August 1942)








 Battle of Bedra (1759 AD) took place between [Dutch and British].








The principles of Brahma Samaj is based on–[Monotheism]

Brahmo Samaj aimed end the evils prevalent in then Hindu society - such as sati, polygamy, caste system etc. 
Raja Rammohan Roy, believing in monotheism, opposed idol worship and avatarism.










Mahatma Gandhi started his first Satyagraha in Champaran (1917)>> Reached Champaran at request of Rajkumar Shukla,>>Tinkathia system. 

Gandhiji received support of two persons [Rajendra Prasad + Anugraha Narayan Singh] during this movement.









During British rule, [Bihar] was famous for the cultivation of opium.









1. First Anglo-Afghan: Lord Ellenborough

*2. First Anglo-Sikh War: Lord Hardinge

*3. First Anglo-Burma: Lord Amherst









Post of {Auditor General} was created at the time of [Canning] in 1857 >>after independence it known as Comptroller and Auditor General.






In the year 1924, Tarakeswar movement was started by [Swami Vishwananda] in Bengal against corrupt Mahant.







‘Radical Democratic Party’ founded in 1940 by [M.N. Roy].







An ‘Inam Commission’ established in 1852 during reign of Lord Dalhousie. The aim was [to locate and snatch the taxless land properties].







A cotton textile mill was first established in [Calcutta] in 1818 AD.

First iron-steel factory in India was established by [J.N. Tata], son of Jamshedji Tata,>>> in 1907 in [Jamshedpur] under name TISCO. 






Commission related to finance and economy–

1. In 1778, [Amini Commission] recommended about [land revenue and famine].

2. [Peel committee] presented its views on question of [division of revenue] b/w central govt and provincial govts.












(Newspaper)- (Founder)
A. Bangali:-      Girish Chandra Ghosh

B. Bang Darshan:-    Bankimchandra Chatterjee

C. Tribune:-     Dayal Singh Majithiya

D. Swadesh Mitram:-     G.S. Ayer









Bandi Jeevan is the creation of [Shachindra Nath Sanyal].











Reasons for the failure of Revolt 1857 -

1. Limited form of rebellion.

*2. The betrayal of native kings and feudatories.

*3. Lack of qualified leadership.

4. Lack of organization.

*5. Lack of definite purpose.

6. Limited means.

7. Lack of public support.

8. British friendly conditions and efficient leadership.










 Pagalpanthi Revolt
Pagal Panthi was a [semi-religious sect].

The sect was founded by [Karam Shah]>> his son Tipu Shah led uphold religion & rights of peasants in Bengal.

The reason for the rebellion was to oppose the atrocities committed by landlords on the peasants.






Arya Samaj–

Opposed idol worship.

Opposed reincarnation and religious tours.

Arya Samaj opposed the untouchability, caste system, but [supported the varna-system].





[Portuguese] established press in India. 
Modern Indian Press started with publication of a newspaper by [William Bolts] in 1766.










Famous Jesuit missionary {Francis Xavier} came to India with which Portuguese Governor–[Martim Afonso D'Sousa]













Mir Qasim appointed German officer [Walter Reinhardt] to modernise his army, who was later known as ‘Sumru’









[Singpho Revolt (1830)] was headed by Sua Gosai.>>> Northeast Frontier Tribal Movement.








‘Daccan Educational Association’ was established by [Mahadeva Govind Ranade]

In 1891, Ranade established {Widow Marriage Association} in Maharashtra and {Deccan Educational Association} for the promotion of education.

In 1867, Mahadev Govind Ranade, together with Atma Ram Pandurang, founded the Prarthana Samaj.











“We want to lead mankind to the place where there is neither the vedas, nor the Bible, nor the Koran.”
Who of the following said this quote–

[Swami Vivekananda]

He was a follower of Vedanta religion.








q. 83
Who are associated with Rahanumai Mazdayasanan Sabha–

1. Dada Bhai Naoroji

2. Naoroji Furdonji

3. S.S. Bengali

For upliftment of Parsi religion and social reform. This newspaper used to publish a newspaper called Rast Goftar (Voice of Truth).









The cause of Revolt of 1857 was cartridge for new Enfield Rifle. Before that [Brown Bess Rifle] was used by British army.






Budget system started in India in [1860]
Bengal Swayamsevak Sangh founded by [Hemchandra Ghosh + Leela Nag].








[Bal Gangadhar Tilak] called Gopal Krishna Gokhale the diamond of India. 

Gopal Krishna Gokhale was the political guru of Mahatma Gandhi, while Gokhale's political guru was {MG Ranade}.







[Udant Martand] (The Rising Sun) was the first Hindi language newspaper published in India










Author of Karmayogin is [Arvind Ghosh]. His other books are Yugantar and Bhawani temples.

Comrade - Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Common will - Anne Be sant

Indian Mirror - Keshav Chandra Sen











{All India Khadi Board} established at [Kakinada Session-1923]  >>Chaired by Abdul kalam Azad.

Nagpur session, 1920

Belgaum Session, 1924

Gaya session, 1922










At Calcutta Session, 1911, Jan-Gana-Man was sung by {Sarala Devi Chaudharani}.
*Calcutta session, 1911 [Bishan Narayan Dar]


Nagpur Session, 1891 [P. Ananda Charlu]







[Dadabhai Naoroji] said that ‘India is dying of hunger.







At the time of Curzon, the News Paper Act-1908 was passed.

Aimed against Extremist nationalist activity.
To confiscate press property which published objectionable material likely to cause [incitement to murder/ acts of violence].








First conference of Uttar Pradesh (United Provinces) Congress Committee held under whose chairmanship in 1908?
[Motilal Nehru]








'Hindustan Socialist Republican Association'
formed in 1928 by Chandrashekhar Azad. Its headquarters were built in [Agra].





Ram Prasad Bismil was hanged in [Gorakhpur jail]. He was involved in Mainpuri conspiracy & Kakori conspiracy. 








Bharat Mata temple located in [Varanasi]







During Salt Satyagraha, after arrest of Gandhi,>>Movement was led by [Abbas Tyabji]







Interim government formed under leadership of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru in [September 1946]

Nehru=  vice-president and foreign affairs.

Baldev Singh = Defense Minister








[Lord Reading] was the only Jewish Viceroy>>tenure (1921–26 AD).







Gopal Krishna Gokhale compared reign of [Curzon] to Aurangzeb. 
Gokhale was founder of {Servants of India Society}.








Lord Canning read Queen Victoria's manifesto in [Allahabad]
On November 1, 1858, a grand Darbar was held at Allahabad. 








In November 1928, ‘Simon Commission’ was boycotted in Lucknow under leadership of [Jawaharlal Nehru]. 
This commission came to make its report on constitutional reforms in India.








[Sarojini Naidu] authored  collection of poetry called Golden Threshold.






[Swami Sahajanand] edited the magazine called ‘Lok Sangharsh’.









1st Carnatic War  - Treaty of Aix-la Chapelle

2d Carnatic War  - Pact of Pondicherry


1st Anglo Mysore War - Treaty of Madras

2nd Anglo Mysore War - Treaty of Mangalore

3rd Anglo Mysore War - Treaty of Srirangapatna.











[Lord Curzon] sent a Young-Husband Campaign to Tibet but tensions arose b/w Tibet and British over terms of negotiations, which led to {Anglo-Tibet War}.










(Rebellion)-                (Leader)

 A. Rampa Rebellion -Alluri Sitaram Raju

 B. Khond Rebellion  -Chakra Visoi

 C. Santhal Rebellion -Sidhu and Kanhu

 D. Kuka Rebellion -Ram Singh










[Sanyasi Rebellion] (Saints Rebellion) mentioned by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in the novels ‘{Anand Math}’ & ‘Devi Chaudharani’.






(1857 Rebellion Leader) - (Related location)
Maulvi Ahmadullah- Faizabad, 

Bakht Khan - Delhi 

Khan Bahadur - Rohilkhand (Bareilly).

Shah Mal -  Baghpat














 'Arya Mahila Samaj' was founded by- [Pandita Rama Bai Saraswati]







Self-respect movement was started by [EV Ramaswamy]

All India Scheduled Castes Federation was founded by [BR Ambedkar].







Raja Rammohan Roy founded Brahmo Samaj with aim of [reforming Hinduism]. 
Their teachings were based on [Vedas and Upanishads] and they {rejected idol worship} and other rituals.











Institutions like ‘Academic Association’ and ‘Society for the Acquisition of General Knowledge' were established in Bengal for spiritual progress and social improvement.

Founded by [Henry Vivian Derozio]










(Letter/Magazine) - (Editor)

 a) Reformer - Gopal Ganesh Agarkar
 b) Prabhakar- Gopalhari Deshmukh

* c) Darpan - Balakrishna Shastri Jambekar.
 d) Samvad Kaumudi - Raja Rammohan Roy












{Radhakant Dev} founded [Dharma Sabha] in opposition to Brahmo Samaj and in support of Sati system?











________________________________________________________________________________________________________--

 Medieval History

(Traveller)-      (Related Place)

 A. Al-Baruni - Uzbekistan
 B. Marco-Polo - Italy

 C. Ibn-batuta - Morokko
 D. Duarte Barbosa - Portugal 






Kitab-ul-Hind written by [Al-Biruni] in Arabic. 






[Feroz Tughlaq] established Public Works Department.
He established cities like Feroz Shah Kotla (in Delhi), Fatehabad, Hisar, Jaunpur,  Ferozepur in Ferozabad.








Chishti Sufi order was founded by {Khwaja Abu Abdal Chishti}.>>> founded in India by [Khwaja Moinuddin], in 12th century.








Amir Khusro (1253-1323) was a great poet, musician and follower of [Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya]

He gave a specific shape to [Chishti Sama]by introducing Kaul (Arabic word, meaning - proverb).  Kaul was sung.







[Arjun Dev], fifth Sikh, helped revolutionary prince Khusrau.






(Dynasty)-   (Sultanate)
Nizamshahi – Ahmed Nagar

Qutub Shahi – Golconda

Imadshahi – Berar

Adilshahi – Bijapur









Muhammad Tughluq, shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad (Devagiri)>> security from Mongol attack. 
Later in 1335, the capital was brought back to Delhi.








Main reason of attack on India by Arabians–[Looting riches and wealth+  Spreading Islam]

Arabs led by {Muhammad bin Qasim} made first successful invasion on India in 712.







Sultan Iltutmish, pure Arabic coins>> silver- tanka & copper- jital.




Policy of harsh and ruthless to enemies & torture and blood shedding adopted by Balban >>described as ‘Iron and Blood’ policy.







 Minister and department related to sultanate period administration–

1. Wazir              :- Head of revenue department

2. Mazmudar (Mazmu Aadar) :-  to keep track of the money lent.

3. Khajeen         :- Treasury head


Chief officer of intelligence department (spy department) = Barid-e-Mumalik.









Persian embassy Abdur Razaaq came to Vijayanagara under the rule of– [ Devaraya-II ]

DevaRaya II was the most powerful king of the Sangam dynasty. 










Jahaz Mahal was built by [Gayasuddin Khilji] in Mandu.








***********************************************************************************************************



Qila-e-Kuhna Mosque (Delhi) was built by [Sher Shah].



build during Shahjahan
Red Fort of Delhi +Diwan-e-Khas + Moti Maszid of Agra




 Treaty of Chittor (1615 AD)=  signed between [Jahangir] and Rana Amar Singh of Mewar.






Hyderabad was founded by [Turanis] and Awadh was founded by the Iranians.






[Sheikh Salim Chishti] is known as ‘Sheikh ul Hind’. The saints or followers of this connection lived separately from the ruling class. 





'Storia do Mogor’ is a book written by [Manucci]. Came to India and served as Dara Shikoh's cannon operator.





[Zulfikar Khan] introduced the Ijara system in the later Mughal period.

Zulfikar Khan encouraged practice of contracting monopoly and recovery of land revenue. Due to which atrocities on peasantry increased.







Chronology of various dynasties of Vijay Nagar Empire- [Sangam- Suluva- Tuluva- Aravidu]

Sangam  (1336–1486 A.D)

 Aravidu (1570–1649 A.D)







During [Muhammad Shah Rangeela] >>music and Urdu developed most. >>Called colorful king.







[Qutubuddin Aibak] has the title Quran Khan.
because he remembered the verses of the entire Quran++ also known as ‘Lakhbaksh’








 Mughal period {Muhtasib} known for [Monitoring the conduct of people]








In Ashtapradhan of Shivaji, the Military [commander] was called ‘Sir-e-Naubat’.






After Shambhaji, Maratha rule was made simple and effective by [Rajaram]>>>Maratha army adopted the guerilla warfare method.








Which historical sites is located in Uttar Pradesh= Sinkadara (tomb of Akbar)
Akbar's tomb is located in Sikandra, Agra district. 


Tomb of Aurangzeb= Khuldabad, Aurangabad district, Maharashtra,






In 1784, the Imambara in Lucknow was built with the purpose of celebrating [Muharram]





At the time of Ranjit Singh, there were 12 Misls in Punjab. Ranjit Singh was from [Sukerchakia Misl].






________________________________________________________________________________________

Cultural History


Tawang monastery – Arunachal Pradesh

Bodhimanda Monastery – Bihar

Mindrolling Monastery – Uttarakhand

Namgyal Monastery - Dharamshala (Himachal Pradesh). 








Sanaka – Dwaitadwaita Sampradaya

Rudra – Shuddhadwaita Sampradaya

Vaishnava – Vishishtadwaita Sampradaya

Brahma sect is related to dualism. Acharya of Brahma sect was [Anandatirtha].









four matha established by Adi Shankaracharya–

Joshimatha,  - In Uttarakhand
Dwarka

Puri
Sringeri (Shringeri) - in Karnataka 







Oldest scripture of Buddha was built in– [Mathura art form]
Mathura style begins in the first century AD. Most of its creation took place in the Kushan period.






Kalighat style belongs to [Bengal]. In this style, images of deities were made with dark colors.










Dialect - Place
1- Awadhi Faizabad
2- Kannauji Etawah
3- Bundeli Chitrakoot


History (Prelims 2019) Subject Test History (Prelims 2019) Subject Test Reviewed by Admin on April 01, 2020 Rating: 5

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